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The Rough Guide to Peru - 1848360533Tourist information Peru, in western South America.

Nazca Lines, Titica Lake, Andes Plains, Cusco [ Inca capital ], Machu Picchu [ lost Inca Town ]

Departments in Peru [ departamentos }: Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua,  Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

Constitutional province [ provincia constitucional ]: Callao.

Peru is well-known as the cradle of the Inca empire.

Capital City of Peru : Lima

car hire, hotels, tour operators - peru tours, travel guides, travel to peru


Car Rentals Peru

Car rental

Hotels in Peru

Hotels in Peru - ilsb
Hotels in Arequipa, Ayacucho, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Pichu, Pubo, Sacred Valley, and Trujillo

   -   Hotels in Cusco and Lima

   -    Find a great deal has room for everyone to relax on their perfect trip. is one of the worlds largest online booking services for hostels. All hostels you see here are offering realtime prices and availability.

  Hostels Peru

Travel Agencies / Tour Operators / Peru specialists

Book an unforgettable holiday in Peru and discover Cuzco - the city that once was the capital of the Incan Empire.

 Sherpa Expeditions
Walking holidays in Peru.

Kuoni   -   escorted tours
**  Peruvian Highlights - Classic Escorted Tour
Some of the magical sights which beckon the visitor to Peru.
**  Discover Peru
Peru boasts an almost unrivalled wealth of history and culture
**  South American Panorama
Experience the spectacular scenery, history and treasures of some of the most exciting countries in South America – Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Brazil.   

 G Adventures
*   Peru on a Shoestring
Highlights: Conquering the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, feeling like a local at an Andean homestay, taking the chance to witness the Nazca Lines and soaring ...
*   Amazon Riverboat Adventure and the Inca Sacred Empire
From the heights of the Andes to the Amazon, experience Peru's diverse landscape, culture and cuisine in one comprehensive adventure. Float through the heartland of the Amazon aboard a riverboat while exploring the Ucayali and Marañon rivers. In the company of an Amazon Reserve Naturalist guide, board small motorized skiffs for excursions that will bring you face to face with the Amazon's wildlife—and two full days of exploration at Pacaya Samiria Reserve will put you in the thick of the action. From the Amazon, ascend to the Andes and explore ruins and delight in views of the Sacred Valley from your coach as you travel by rail to Machu Picchu. This is adventure in style!

Thomas Cook    

Travel Guides Peru / Related Books
Peru (Lonely Planet Country Guides) - 174179014X
Travel Guides Peru  [ ]

  Peru (Lonely Planet Country Guides) - 174179014X
Carolina Miranda (Author)
Includes a full-colour section on Peru's Ancient Treasures, featuring Machu Picchu and Peru's many other pre-Columbian archaeological treasures. This title highlights the culinary scene. It contains information on best available tours, organizations, and lessons. It also includes a GreenDex with environmentally and culturally sustainable lists.
Paperback: 572 pages; Publisher: Lonely Planet Publications; 7th Revised edition edition (1 April 2010); ISBN-10: 174179014X; ISBN-13: 978-1741790146.

  The Rough Guide to Peru - 1848360533
Dilwyn Jenkins 
The Rough Guide to Peru is the ultimate travel guide with clear maps and detailed coverage of all the best attractions Peru has to offer. Discover the varied and exciting country of Peru whether exploring the breathtaking Machu Picchu, traversing a rainforest canopy walkway in one of the world's richest jungles or hiking the Inca Trail, the Rough Guide to Peru makes sure you make the most out of your time in Peru. Packed with detailed, practical advice on what to see and do in Peru; this guide provides reliable, up-to-date descriptions of the best hotels in Peru, recommended restaurants in Peru, and tips on everything from shopping to festivals in Peru for all budgets. Featuring detailed coverage on a full range of attractions; from the Archbishops' Palace and Nasca Lines, to the Valley of the Pyramids and scaling the Inca temple-fortress of Sacsayhuaman, you'll find expert tips on exploring Peru's amazing attractions with an authoritative background on Peru's rich culture and history.Explore all corners of Peru with the clearest maps of any guide and practical Spanish language tips. Make the most of your holiday with The Rough Guide to Peru.
Paperback: 680 pages; Publisher: Rough Guides; 7 edition (1 July 2009); ISBN-10: 1848360533; ISBN-13: 978-1848360532.

Transportation / How do I travel to Peru

Peru is bordering with Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

  Lima - Jorge Chavez International Airport

  Arequipa Airport   -    has Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon International Airport
Located in the district of Cerro Colorado, about 12 km. northwest of the city centre.
  Iquitos Airport   -   Coronel FAP Francisco Secada Vignetta International Airport [ IATA: IQT, ICAO: SPQT ]
  Pucallpa Airport   -   Captain Rolden International Airport
  Puno Airport   -   Inca Manco Capac International Airport in nearby Juliaca
  Tacna Airport   -   Crnl. FAP. Carlos Ciriani Santa Rosa International Airport
  Teniente FAP Jaime Montreuil Morales Airport [ (IATA: CHM, ICAO: SPEO ]
This airport serves Chimbote, a harbour in the north of Peru. It is an important airport in the Ancash Region.


   -   Flights to Peru
Book cheap flights to Peru at ebookers and benefit from discounted airfares. View their latest offers and book your flights, accommodation, car hire and insurance online

LAN Airlines UK    -   Flights to Peru

  Airline Tickets Peru / Bargain Flights  
Flight tickets Peru, price comparison possible

  Plataforma 10   -   bus tickets and boat tickets
Platform 10 distributes services of more than 70 important businesses of transportation at more than 1600 destinies in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay.

  Maps International   -   Maps of Peru is one of the largest map shops online.
  Online Maps of Peru [ Uni Texas   -   Perry-Castañeda Library   -   Map Collection ]


  Peru at a Glance
Heir to ancient cultures and a rich colonial tradition, Perú is a magical spot which involves one of the richest biodiversities of Earth, and is a melting pot of different cultures who together are forging the promise of a better future.
Info:  Peru at a Glance, Cities & Destinations, Historical Places, Nature & Lanscapes, Culture & Traditions, Adventure Sports, Special Interest

  Lima   -   Capital City of Peru / Largest city of Peru and major point of entry
Lima is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. With Callao, a seaport, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of ca. 9 million, Lima is the fifth largest city in Latin America. See Municipality of Lima.

  Cusco Departemento

  Ancash region
The department is the epicenter of Peru's adventure tourism sector and attracts visitors seeking to participate in all sorts of activities. The department is a paradise for trekkers and hikers as there is a vast network of trails.
One of the main attractions in this region is the Huascaran National Park which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The region of Ancash is home to the Cordillera Blanca, the highest mountain range in Peru with Peru's highest mountain, Mt. Huascarán.
The capital city, Huaraz, has a small but reasonably developed skiing industry. Mountain biking is the fastest growing sport in the region.
  Apurímac Region   -   in the southern Andes of Peru
Main tourist activities: hiking and white water rafting.

  Abancay   -   city in southern-central Peru
It is the most important city in the Apurímac Region, and is the capital of the Abancay Province. Because of its famous year-round warm weather, it is known as "The Eternal Spring Valley". See Municipality of Abancay.
  Arequipa   -   capital city Arequipa Region and major commercial hub in southern Peru
Arequipa is situated in the Andes mountains, at an altitude of 2,335 meters [ 7,661 feet ] overlooked by the former snow-capped volcano El Misti. Many colonial-era Spanish buildings in the city are built of sillar, a pearly white volcanic rock [ hence the city's nickname La Ciudad Blanca / The White City. The historic centre of Arequipa was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000, in recognition of its architecture and historic integrity. Colca Canyon [ 160 kilometers) northwest of Arequipa and more than twice as deep as the Grand Canyon in the United States at 4,160 m. ]. After Lima and Cuzco it is the most visited city in Peru. See Municipality of Arequipa and Colca Autoridad Autonoma del Colca y Anexos.
  Ayacucho   -   southern Andes
Ayacucho is famous for its 33 churches, which represent one for each year of Jesus's life. Ayacucho has large religious celebrations, especially during the Holy Week of Easter. See Support website artisans from Ayacucho
The department of Ayacucho is home to various Wari archeological sites. See Gobierno Regional Ayacucho.
  Cajamarca  -   capital of the Cajamarca region in the northern highlands of Peru
Cajamarca as the place where the Inca Empire came to an end; the Battle of Cajamarca and the capture, abuse, and murder of the Incan emperor Atahualpa took place here. Today Cajamarca is known for its churches, and hot springs [ Complejo Turístico de Baños del Inca, Inca baths considered the most beautiful in South America ]. The city is also well-known for its cheeses and dairy products. In the surrounding area there are several active mining sites. About a 30 km drive in northern direction lies Yanacocha, a gold mine considered to be the second largest gold mine in the world. See Municipality of Cajamarca, Casa de la Cultura Cajamarca, Mina de Yanacocha.
  Callao   -    largest and most important port in Peru
Callao was founded by Spanish colonists in 1537, just two years after Lima (1535). Callao is located west of Lima and part of the Lima Metropolitan Area. In front Callao are several islands: the historic San Lorenzo Island [ the largest island of the Peruvian coast ], the island of El Fronton [ former island ],  Cavinzas Island [ Isle of guano birds ], and Palomino Islands, where thousands of sea ​​lionslive in their natural habitat and what has become a major tourist attraction.
There is a large naval base and Lima's Jorge Chávez International Airport is located in Callao. See Municipality of Callao.
  Catacaos   -   famous for its "Hats" and "Silversmith" arts.
  Chiclayo   -    capital city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru
It is located 13 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast. hiclayo is one of the most important urban areas of Peru. It's being known as one of the friendliest cities in Peru. Because of this attribute, Chiclayo is known as "The Capital of Friendship" and the "Pearl of the North".
The city was founded near what has been discovered as an important prehistoric archaeological site, the Northern Wari ruins, which constitute the remains of a city from the 7th-12th century Wari Empire. See Municipality of Lambayeque.
  Chimbote   -   capital of both Santa Province and Chimbote District.
Largest fishing port in Peru. More than 75 percent of Peru's fishing industry is based in Chimbote. The city is located on the coast in Chimbote Bay, south of Trujillo. Ca. 1500 it was a notable stopping point along the Inca Camino Real. See Municipalidad Provincial del Santa.
  Chincha Alta
  Cusco / Cuzco   -    in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley [ Andes mountain range ]
Cusco was the site of the historic capital of the Inca Empire and was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983 by UNESCO. The aboriginal name of this city was Qosqo and find its origin in the phrase 'qusqu wanka' [ Rock of the owl ], attending to the foundational myth of the Ayar Siblings. Its altitude is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). See Municipality of Cusco.
  Huancayo   -   in the central highlands of Peru, capital city Junín Province
Situated near the Mantaro Valley at an altitude of 3,271 meters. Huancayo is the cultural and commercial center of the whole central Peruvian Andes area. See Municipality of Huancayo
  Huaraz   -   capital of Peru's Ancash region in the Cordillera Blanca in the Andes
Huaraz is known as the 'Switzerland of the South' because of its beautiful peaks that are visible from the city centre. Huascarán National Park is a popular destination for tourists.
It is seen by climbers as a good starting point to climb 6000 meters mountains in the Cordillera Blanca in a few days. The town is fully prepared for the climbers, there are many shops and climbing a mountain guide office. The town is fully prepared for the climbers, there are many climbing shops and a mountain guide office.
Near Huaraz lies "Chavin de Huantar", an archaeological site, at an altitude of 3177 meters. The ruins lie hidden between two mountain ranges: the Cordillera Negra and the Cordillera Blanca. The main building is the main temple of Chavín, which consists of platforms, terraces and underground passageways, which are connected by stairs. In 1985 the Monumento Arqueológico Chavín de Huantar, as the name is officially appointed, became an UNESCO World Heritage. See Municipality of Huaraz.
  Ica   -   capital city Ica Region in southern Peru
Ica is situated on the Ica River along the desert coast of southern Peru. Further south along the Pan-American Highway lies the city of Nazca. The Spanish conquistador Gerónimo Luis de Cabrera claimed its founding in 1563. Ica's location in the desert provides unique opportunities for tourism. See Municipalidad Provincial de Ica.
  Iquitos   -   largest city in the Peruvian rainforest
Located on the Amazon Riverand more than 3,000 km (1,864 mi) from the mouth of the Amazon on the Atlantic Ocean. Iquitos has long been a major port in the Amazon Basin [ and still is ]. It is surrounded by three rivers: the Nanay, the Itaya, and the Amazon. Iquitos is the capital of Loreto Region and Maynas Province. The city was known for its rubber industry [ rubber boom first decade of the 20th century - cars needed tires ]. One of the late 19th century mansions in the city, Casa de Fierro was designed by Gustave Eiffel, designer of the Eiffel Tower. Iquitos is home to the prominent Peruvian conservation research organization, Project Amazonas and  a base for tours of the Amazon rainforest and the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve. Municipalidad Provincial de Maynas.
  La Libertad
  Madre de Dios
  Piura   -   Capital city Piura Region in northwestern Peu
Spanish Conqueror Francisco Pizarro founded the city [ third Spanish city in South America and first in Peru] as San Miguel de Piura, in July 1532. One of the best known tourist attractions in Piura is La Esmeralda beach [ located near the town of Colan ].There are also great spots for surfers, like Mancora Beach and Cabo Blanco. See Municipality of Piura.
  Pucallpa   -   city in eastern Peru
Pucallpa [ 'red earth in Quechua language ] is situated in the Amazonian plain, on the left bank of the river Ucayali, a major tributary of the Amazon River.
  Puerto Maldonado
  Puno   -   Capital city of the Puno Region
Puno in located in southeastern Peru between the shores of Lake Titicaca and the mountains surrounding the city. Puno's access to Lake Titicaca is surrounded by 41 floating islands. These man-made islands are maintained and bevolkt door the Uros people, depending on the lake for their survival. Puno is known as the folkloric capital of Peru. See Municipalidad Provincial de Puno.
  San Isidro
  San Martín
  Simbila   -   small town   -   very popular for its handcrafts and pottery.
  Tacna [ San Pedro de Tacna ]   -   regional capital of the Tacna Region
Located on the border with Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean and in the valley of the Caplina River. Tacna has a cross-border gauge railway to Arica, Chile. Nearby the caves of Toquepala, where some of the oldest human remains in Peru have been found by archaeologists. Every year one of the most important patriotic demonstrations in Peru takes place in Tacna. Then a large Peruvian flag [ Paseo de la Bandera, on August 28 ] is shown throughout the city during the 'Semana de Tacna', which runs from August 25–30. It celebrates the anniversary of the reincorporation of Tacna into Peruvian sovereignty. This tradition started in 1901. See unicipality de Tacna
  Ucayali   -   Ucayali is an inland region
Located in the Amazon rainforest. Regional capital: the city of Pucallpa. Places of interest : El Sira Communal Reserve [ protected area ] and Purús Communal Reserve. Purus river [ Tributary of the Amazon River ], Purus Valley. See Gobierno Regional de Ucayali. See also Municipalidad Provincial de Coronel Portillo.

  Inca Empire
The Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru.
  Lake Titica
  Machu Picchu [ Lost Inca Town ]
  Nasca [ mysterious Lines ]
  PBS   -   Living Edens   -   Manu, Peru's Hidden Rainforest
Along the eastern base of the Andes is a great red and winding river named Manu - the life blood and main highway for the Manu Biosphere Reserve. Cascading down from the dry, grassy plateaus at four thousand meters, and falling dramatically into a tangled cloud forest of dwarf trees, giant begonias, orchids and fern, Manu emerges into a spectacular land replete with howler monkeys, skimmers, egrets and macaws. The Reserve offers us a special look at the abundance of life in the rare Amazonian wilderness.

  National University of Callao
  University Huancayo   -   Universidad Peruana Los Andes (UPLA)
  Universidad Tecnológica de los Andes [ Abancay ]
  Universidad Nacional Micaela Bastidas de Apurimac [ Abancay ]
  Universidad Nacional de San Agustin [ Arequipa ]
  Universidad católica Santa Maria [ Arequipa ]
  Universidad Católica San Pablo [ Arequipa ]

Cuisine  -  Peruvian Recipes

Try the local dishes in the chicherías and picanterías. Spicy foods are arequipeña or a la criolla. Ethnic cooking is more prevalent in the highlands.

Piura is famous for gastronomical dishes like Seco de chabelo, algarrobina-based drinks, many types of seafood and fish, and Natilla Sweets.

A popular Peruvian dish whose ingredients include white fish, octopus, seashell, squid, crab, and red hot pepper.
  Pisco [ 'little bird' in Quechua language]   -   a strong brandy
Spanish settlers developed this colorless grape brandy in the 16th century as a cheaper alternative to orujo, a pomace brandy that was being imported from Spain.
Pisco takes its name from the conical pottery in which it was originally aged, which was also the name of one of the sites where it was produced: Pisco. See

  Culinary history of Peru
The culinary history of the Peruvian food dates back to the Incas and pre-Incas with its maize, potatoes and spices that later was influenced by the arrival of the Spanish colonies, and throughout the years it incorporated the demands of the different migrations and "mestizajes". Such groups included Chinese, European, African and Japanese immigrants.

Tastes of Peru  -   Marina Polvay
Peruvian cuisine is as complex as the history of this country located on the western coast of South America. Peru's varied topography, which ranges from the western coastal plain to the high and rugged Andes to the eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon basin, makes for a cuisine rich in both seafood and meat. The food of Peru is dominated by the 'sun' cuisine of the Incas, whose love of everything yellow is legendary. The most popular dish, ceviche, is made of fish, shrimp, or scallops marinated in lime juice.
Hardcover 200 pages (June 2003);  Publisher: Hippocrene Books, Inc.;  Language: English;  ISBN: 0781809657
  Peru For The Gourmet Traveler 
Popular Foods & National Cuisine [ Ceviche ], Popular Beverages & National Drinks [ Pisco ], Best Dining Destinations [ Lima ]

History Peru  -  Peruvian history

Peru declared its independence from Spain on July 28, 1821 thanks to an alliance between the Argentine army of José de San Martín, and the Neogranadine Army of Simon Bolivar.

Before the Spanish arrived, Peru was home to various Pre-Inca cultures and later, to the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro landed on the Peruvian coast in 1532, and by the end of the 1530s Peru became a Viceroyalty and a major source of gold and silver for the Spanish Empire.

  Peru's History   -   Wikipedia
Ancient history of peru, Colonial Peru, Revolutionary Peru, Territorial disputes, Peru since 1945.
  Peruvian History 

  History of Lima
The history of Lima, the capital of Peru, began with its foundation by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535.

  Guaman Poma, Nueva corónica y buen gobierno (1615)
A high-quality digital version of the Corónica, scanned from the original manuscript.
The Ancient Kingdoms of Peru  -   Nigel Davies
A general history for the student and general reader of the cultures and civilizations of pre-Hispanic Peru from pre-history to the Conquest which incorporates the discoveries of recent archaeological and textual investigations.
Paperback 256 pages (July 31, 1997);  Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd.;  Language: English;  ISBN: 0140233814

Music, Arts & Culture Peru, Events

  Peña [ an Afro-Peruvian music collective ]
Afro-Peruvian music was born directly out of the slave culture of costal Peru.  Each style or form of the genre reflects a different aspect of the life of slavery. See Secret Stash Records

  Peruvian Waltz / Vals peruano
This waltz is also called Creole Waltz and is an adaptation of the European Waltz brought to the Americas during colonial times by Spain. See Música Criolla del Perú  - Los Troveros Criollos [ Peruvian Creole Music - The Creole Troubadours ]. See also Youtube : Los Embajadores Criollos - Mujer Interesada.

The tondero and cumanana are the traditional music of mestizo Piura and northern parts of Lambayeque.

  Culture of Peru
The relationship between Hispanic and Indian cultures has shaped the face of Peru. During pre-Columbian times, Peru was one of the major centers of artistic expression in America, where Pre-Inca cultures, such as Chavín, Moche, Paracas, Huari (Wari), Nazca, Chimu, and Tiahuanaco developed high-quality pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture.
  Cultures of the Andes

  Mestizo culture
  Chulucana Pottery
  Myth of the Ayar Siblings

  Museums in Lima

  Carnaval de Cajamarca
  Federación Regional de Folklore y Cultura de Puno

  Lima. A cultural history   -   James Higgings
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0195178912.
The Incas  -   Terence N. D'Altroy
The great empire of the Incas at its height encompassed an area of western South America comparable in size to the Roman Empire in Europe. This book describes and explains its extraordinary progress from a small Andean society in southern Peru to its rapid demise little more than a century later at the hands of the Spanish conquerors. The Incas is the first book fully to synthesize history and archaeology in a sweeping exploration of the entire empire from Chile to Ecuador. The author explains how the Incas drew from millennia of cultural developments to mould a diverse land into a dynamic, powerful, and yet fragile polity. From this integrated perspective, The Incas profoundly rethinks the nature of imperial formation, ideology, and social, economic, and political relations in Inca society.
Paperback 408 pages (July 1, 2003);  Publisher: Blackwell Publishing;  Language: English;  ISBN: 1405116765
The Incas: Empire of Blood and Gold  -   Carmen Bernand
When Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532 he found a vast empire rich in gold and silver. Ruled by monarchs claiming descent from the sun, its people built roads, bridges and fields through the Andes. But within months the empire had been conquered and its subjects killed or enslaved.
Paperback 192 pages (April 18, 1994);  Publisher: Thames and Hudson Ltd.;  Language: English;  ISBN: 0500300402
The Nasca - Peoples of America Serie  -   Helaine Silverman, Donald Proulx
Ancient Nasca culture of the south coast of Peru is famous for its magnificent polychrome ceramics, textiles, and other works of art, as well as the enigmatic ground markings on the desert plain at Nasca. In the past two decades much has become known about the people who produced these fascinating works. This scholarly yet accessible book provides a penetrating examination of this important civilization. It traces the history of archaeological research on the south coast and reveals the misconceptions that became canonized in the scholarly literature. Based on years of fieldwork by the authors in the region, it provides a comprehensive and readable analysis of ancient Nasca society, examining Nasca social and political organization, religion, and art. The highlight for many readers will be the chapter on the Nazca Lines which debunks Erich von D'niken's contention that the desert markings were made by extraterrestrials. This well-illustrated, concise text will serve as a benchmark study of the Nasca people and culture for years to come.
Paperback 360 pages (January 10, 2002);  Publisher: Blackwell Publishers;  Language: English;  ISBN: 0631232249

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